Article | . 2016 Vol. 16, Issue. 6
Relationship between obesity and periodontal diseases in adults



Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Shinhan University1




2016.. 815:824


PDF XML




Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between obesity and periodontal diseases in adults. Methods: The subjects were 6,762 adults over 19 years old selected from the 6th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(2013). The study instruments included periodontal status of periodontal diseases, body mass index(BMI), and waist circumference(WC). Periodontal status was evaluated by community periodontal index(CPI). Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 program. Results: The prevalence of periodontal diseases was higher in male, older aged people, undereducated people, current smokers, and those having poor cognition for toothbrushing(p<0.001). The rate of obesity by BMI and WC was higher in male, older aged people and current smokers. The rate of obesity was lower in well-educated people and good practice of toothbrushing(p<0.001). The prevalence of periodontal diseases by BMI showed 0.565 times lower in underweight population, 1.302 times higher in overweight population, and 1.311 times higher in highly obese population than normal population. The prevalence of periodontal diseases by waist circumferences showed 1.404 times higher in obese population than the normal population(p<0.05). Conclusions: It is very important to promote periodontal disease prevention and education for obese population in Korea. The risk of periodontal diseases can be preventable by decrease of BMI and WC.



[1]Doll S, Paccaud F, Bovet P, Burnier M, Wietlisbach V. Body mass index, abdominal adiposity and blood pressure: consistency of their association across developing and developed countries. Int J Obes 2002;26(1):48-57.   

[2]An SY, Park SY. Relationship between BMI, oral health behavior and perceived oral symptoms among child care teachers. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2013;13(5):769-76. https://doi.org/10.13065/jksdh.2013.13.05.769  

[3]World Health Organization: Obesity and overweight[Internet]. [cited 2015 Jan 28]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/  

[4]Hou X, Jia W, Bao Y, Lu H, Jiang S, Zuo Y, et al. Risk factors for overweight and obesity, and changes in body mass index of chinese adults in shanghai. BMC Public Health 2008;8:389.  

[5]Statistics Korea: Obesity prevalence in Korea[Internet]. [cited 2016 Aug 1]. Available from: http://www.index.go.kr/potal/main/PotalMain.do  

[6]Korean Society for the Study of Obesity: Guideline for obesity management 2012[Internet]. [cited 2016 May 25]. Available from: http://www.kosso.or.kr/general/  

[7]Kim SH, Lee SM. Effect of obesity and psychological stress on oral health. J Dent Hyg Sci 2015;15(2):119-28.  

[8]Park JS, Moon JH, Huh JS, Kong HK, Kim HJ. Comparison of correlation between prostate volume and obesity indices. J Korean Soc Study Obes 2015;24(2):95-100.  

[9]Park KH. The relationship between periodontal disease and obesity indices[Doctoral dissertation]. Seoul: Univ. of Hanyang, 2016.  

[10]Pihlstrom BL. Michalowicz BS, Johnson NW. Periodontal diseases. Lancet 2005;366(9499): 1809-2010.   

[11]Kim SH, AR, Yoon, Yang YJ. Association of food and nutrient intakes with periodontitis by smoking status among Korean adults. J Korean Community Nutr 2014;19(1):84-94.  

[12]Genco RJ. Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol 1996;67:1041-9.  

[13]KIM EJ. Association between obesity and periodontitis, caries[Doctoral dissertation]. Seoul: Univ. of Seoul National, 2014.   

[14]Wood N, Johnson RB, Streckfus CF. Comparison of body composition and periodontal disease using nutritional assess-ment techniques: third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). J Clin Periodontol 2003;30(4):321-7.  

[15]Lee YK, Park JR. The relationship of obesity and periodontal disease by age. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2013;13(6):1015-21.  

[16]Sede MA, Ehizele AO. Relationship between obesity and oral diseases. Niger J Clin Pract 2014; 17:683-90.  

[17]Al-Zahrani MS, Bissada NF, Borawskit EA. Obesity and periodontal disease in young, middle- aged, and older adults. J Periodontol 2003;74:610-5.  

[18]Kong YM, Han GS. Relationships between obesity types and periodontitis according to characteristics of subjects. J Dent Hyg Sci 2012;12(3):279-86.  

[19]Ministry of Health and Welfare: Korea Health Statistics 2013. The fifth korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES). Seoul: Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2015: 1-240.  

[20]Morita I, Okamoto Y, Yoshii S, Nakagaki H, Mizuno K, Sheiham A, et al. Five-year incidence of periodontal disease is related to body mass index. J Dent Res 2011;90(2):199-202.   

[21]Kang HK, Sung MK, Lee MK, Lee BH, Lee JY. Periodontics for the dental hygienist. Paju: Soomoonsa; 2013: 32-107.  

[22]Huttner EA, Machado DC, Oliveira RB, Antunes AG, Hebling E. Effects of human aging on periodontal tissues. Spec Care Dentist 2009;29(4):149-55.   

[23]Shizukuishi S. Smoking and periodontal disease. Clin Calcium 2007;17(2):226-32.  

[24]Bae NK, Kwon IS, Cho YC. Ten year change of body mass index in Korean: 1997-2007. J Korean Soc Study Obes 2009;18:24-30.  

[25]Ritchie CS. Obesity and periodontal disease. Periodontology 2000 2007;44(1):154-63.  

[26]Goodson JM, Groppo D, Halem S, Carpino E. Is obesity an oral bacterial disease?. J Dent Res 2009;88(6):519-23.  



Article | . 2016 Vol. 16, Issue. 6
Relationship between obesity and periodontal diseases in adults



Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Shinhan University1




2016.. 815:824


PDF XML




Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between obesity and periodontal diseases in adults. Methods: The subjects were 6,762 adults over 19 years old selected from the 6th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(2013). The study instruments included periodontal status of periodontal diseases, body mass index(BMI), and waist circumference(WC). Periodontal status was evaluated by community periodontal index(CPI). Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 program. Results: The prevalence of periodontal diseases was higher in male, older aged people, undereducated people, current smokers, and those having poor cognition for toothbrushing(p<0.001). The rate of obesity by BMI and WC was higher in male, older aged people and current smokers. The rate of obesity was lower in well-educated people and good practice of toothbrushing(p<0.001). The prevalence of periodontal diseases by BMI showed 0.565 times lower in underweight population, 1.302 times higher in overweight population, and 1.311 times higher in highly obese population than normal population. The prevalence of periodontal diseases by waist circumferences showed 1.404 times higher in obese population than the normal population(p<0.05). Conclusions: It is very important to promote periodontal disease prevention and education for obese population in Korea. The risk of periodontal diseases can be preventable by decrease of BMI and WC.

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between obesity and periodontal diseases in adults. Methods: The subjects were 6,762 adults over 19 years old selected from the 6th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(2013). The study instruments included periodontal status of periodontal diseases, body mass index(BMI), and waist circumference(WC). Periodontal status was evaluated by community periodontal index(CPI). Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 program. Results: The prevalence of periodontal diseases was higher in male, older aged people, undereducated people, current smokers, and those having poor cognition for toothbrushing(p<0.001). The rate of obesity by BMI and WC was higher in male, older aged people and current smokers. The rate of obesity was lower in well-educated people and good practice of toothbrushing(p<0.001). The prevalence of periodontal diseases by BMI showed 0.565 times lower in underweight population, 1.302 times higher in overweight population, and 1.311 times higher in highly obese population than normal population. The prevalence of periodontal diseases by waist circumferences showed 1.404 times higher in obese population than the normal population(p<0.05). Conclusions: It is very important to promote periodontal disease prevention and education for obese population in Korea. The risk of periodontal diseases can be preventable by decrease of BMI and WC.



[1]Doll S, Paccaud F, Bovet P, Burnier M, Wietlisbach V. Body mass index, abdominal adiposity and blood pressure: consistency of their association across developing and developed countries. Int J Obes 2002;26(1):48-57.   

[2]An SY, Park SY. Relationship between BMI, oral health behavior and perceived oral symptoms among child care teachers. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2013;13(5):769-76. https://doi.org/10.13065/jksdh.2013.13.05.769  

[3]World Health Organization: Obesity and overweight[Internet]. [cited 2015 Jan 28]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/  

[4]Hou X, Jia W, Bao Y, Lu H, Jiang S, Zuo Y, et al. Risk factors for overweight and obesity, and changes in body mass index of chinese adults in shanghai. BMC Public Health 2008;8:389.  

[5]Statistics Korea: Obesity prevalence in Korea[Internet]. [cited 2016 Aug 1]. Available from: http://www.index.go.kr/potal/main/PotalMain.do  

[6]Korean Society for the Study of Obesity: Guideline for obesity management 2012[Internet]. [cited 2016 May 25]. Available from: http://www.kosso.or.kr/general/  

[7]Kim SH, Lee SM. Effect of obesity and psychological stress on oral health. J Dent Hyg Sci 2015;15(2):119-28.  

[8]Park JS, Moon JH, Huh JS, Kong HK, Kim HJ. Comparison of correlation between prostate volume and obesity indices. J Korean Soc Study Obes 2015;24(2):95-100.  

[9]Park KH. The relationship between periodontal disease and obesity indices[Doctoral dissertation]. Seoul: Univ. of Hanyang, 2016.  

[10]Pihlstrom BL. Michalowicz BS, Johnson NW. Periodontal diseases. Lancet 2005;366(9499): 1809-2010.   

[11]Kim SH, AR, Yoon, Yang YJ. Association of food and nutrient intakes with periodontitis by smoking status among Korean adults. J Korean Community Nutr 2014;19(1):84-94.  

[12]Genco RJ. Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol 1996;67:1041-9.  

[13]KIM EJ. Association between obesity and periodontitis, caries[Doctoral dissertation]. Seoul: Univ. of Seoul National, 2014.   

[14]Wood N, Johnson RB, Streckfus CF. Comparison of body composition and periodontal disease using nutritional assess-ment techniques: third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). J Clin Periodontol 2003;30(4):321-7.  

[15]Lee YK, Park JR. The relationship of obesity and periodontal disease by age. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2013;13(6):1015-21.  

[16]Sede MA, Ehizele AO. Relationship between obesity and oral diseases. Niger J Clin Pract 2014; 17:683-90.  

[17]Al-Zahrani MS, Bissada NF, Borawskit EA. Obesity and periodontal disease in young, middle- aged, and older adults. J Periodontol 2003;74:610-5.  

[18]Kong YM, Han GS. Relationships between obesity types and periodontitis according to characteristics of subjects. J Dent Hyg Sci 2012;12(3):279-86.  

[19]Ministry of Health and Welfare: Korea Health Statistics 2013. The fifth korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES). Seoul: Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2015: 1-240.  

[20]Morita I, Okamoto Y, Yoshii S, Nakagaki H, Mizuno K, Sheiham A, et al. Five-year incidence of periodontal disease is related to body mass index. J Dent Res 2011;90(2):199-202.   

[21]Kang HK, Sung MK, Lee MK, Lee BH, Lee JY. Periodontics for the dental hygienist. Paju: Soomoonsa; 2013: 32-107.  

[22]Huttner EA, Machado DC, Oliveira RB, Antunes AG, Hebling E. Effects of human aging on periodontal tissues. Spec Care Dentist 2009;29(4):149-55.   

[23]Shizukuishi S. Smoking and periodontal disease. Clin Calcium 2007;17(2):226-32.  

[24]Bae NK, Kwon IS, Cho YC. Ten year change of body mass index in Korean: 1997-2007. J Korean Soc Study Obes 2009;18:24-30.  

[25]Ritchie CS. Obesity and periodontal disease. Periodontology 2000 2007;44(1):154-63.  

[26]Goodson JM, Groppo D, Halem S, Carpino E. Is obesity an oral bacterial disease?. J Dent Res 2009;88(6):519-23.  

[1]Doll S, Paccaud F, Bovet P, Burnier M, Wietlisbach V. Body mass index, abdominal adiposity and blood pressure: consistency of their association across developing and developed countries. Int J Obes 2002;26(1):48-57.   

[2]An SY, Park SY. Relationship between BMI, oral health behavior and perceived oral symptoms among child care teachers. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2013;13(5):769-76. https://doi.org/10.13065/ jksdh.2013.13.05.769  

[3]World Health Organization: Obesity and overweight[Internet]. [cited 2015 Jan 28]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/  

[4]Hou X, Jia W, Bao Y, Lu H, Jiang S, Zuo Y, et al. Risk factors for overweight and obesity, and changes in body mass index of chinese adults in shanghai. BMC Public Health 2008;8:389.  

[5]Statistics Korea: Obesity prevalence in Korea[Internet]. [cited 2016 Aug 1]. Available from: http://www.index.go.kr/potal/main/PotalMain.do  

[6]Korean Society for the Study of Obesity: Guideline for obesity management 2012[Internet]. [cited 2016 May 25]. Available from: http://www.kosso.or.kr/general/  

[7]Kim SH, Lee SM. Effect of obesity and psychological stress on oral health. J Dent Hyg Sci 2015;15(2):119-28.  

[8]Park JS, Moon JH, Huh JS, Kong HK, Kim HJ. Comparison of correlation between prostate volume and obesity indices. J Korean Soc Study Obes 2015;24(2):95-100.  

[9]Park KH. The relationship between periodontal disease and obesity indices[Doctoral dissertation]. Seoul: Univ. of Hanyang, 2016.  

[10]Pihlstrom BL. Michalowicz BS, Johnson NW. Periodontal diseases. Lancet 2005;366(9499): 1809-2010.   

[11]Kim SH, AR, Yoon, Yang YJ. Association of food and nutrient intakes with periodontitis by smoking status among Korean adults. J Korean Community Nutr 2014;19(1):84-94.  

[12]Genco RJ. Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol 1996;67:1041-9.  

[13]KIM EJ. Association between obesity and periodontitis, caries[Doctoral dissertation]. Seoul: Univ. of Seoul National, 2014.   

[14]Wood N, Johnson RB, Streckfus CF. Comparison of body composition and periodontal disease using nutritional assess-ment techniques: third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). J Clin Periodontol 2003;30(4):321-7.  

[15]Lee YK, Park JR. The relationship of obesity and periodontal disease by age. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2013;13(6):1015-21.  

[16]Sede MA, Ehizele AO. Relationship between obesity and oral diseases. Niger J Clin Pract 2014; 17:683-90.  

[17]Al-Zahrani MS, Bissada NF, Borawskit EA. Obesity and periodontal disease in young, middle- aged, and older adults. J Periodontol 2003;74:610-5.  

[18]Kong YM, Han GS. Relationships between obesity types and periodontitis according to characteristics of subjects. J Dent Hyg Sci 2012;12(3):279-86.  

[19]Ministry of Health and Welfare: Korea Health Statistics 2013. The fifth korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES). Seoul: Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2015: 1-240.  

[20]Morita I, Okamoto Y, Yoshii S, Nakagaki H, Mizuno K, Sheiham A, et al. Five-year incidence of periodontal disease is related to body mass index. J Dent Res 2011;90(2):199-202.   

[21]Kang HK, Sung MK, Lee MK, Lee BH, Lee JY. Periodontics for the dental hygienist. Paju: Soomoonsa; 2013: 32-107.  

[22]Huttner EA, Machado DC, Oliveira RB, Antunes AG, Hebling E. Effects of human aging on periodontal tissues. Spec Care Dentist 2009;29(4):149-55.   

[23]Shizukuishi S. Smoking and periodontal disease. Clin Calcium 2007;17(2):226-32.  

[24]Bae NK, Kwon IS, Cho YC. Ten year change of body mass index in Korean: 1997-2007. J Korean Soc Study Obes 2009;18:24-30.  

[25]Ritchie CS. Obesity and periodontal disease. Periodontology 2000 2007;44(1):154-63.  

[26]Goodson JM, Groppo D, Halem S, Carpino E. Is obesity an oral bacterial disease?. J Dent Res 2009;88(6):519-23.  



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