Article | . Vol. 19, Issue. 3
Effects of mouth rinsing with foam vitamins and its intake on reduction in oral microorganisms



Departments of Biomedical Health Science, Graduate, Dongeui University1
Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Sciences, Choonhae University2
Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University3




.. 387:397


PDF XML




Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the subjects’ oral health status and changes in the oral environment after mouthwash with effervescent Vitamin C and its intake and to understand the impact on changes in the number of bacteria causing periodontal diseases in the oral cavity based on the oral health status and oral environmental condition. Methods: After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board of DーUniversity, 45 people (24 in an experimental group and 21 in a control group) who participated in the oral health program were selected, among visitors of the Clinical Dental Hygienics Laboratory of D. University in B. Results: Based on the subjects’ periodontal health status, the number of bacteria causing periodontal diseases in the oral cavity decreased in both experimental and control groups before and after the experiment. However, in the experimental group, it was significant when the Bleeding on Probing(BOP) level was below average, and Calculus index(CAL) was above average, in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and the red complex. It was also significant when CAL was above average in the orange complex in the control group. Regarding bacterial changes in periodontal diseases based on the subjects’ oral environmental condition, there was a significant change in the Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP : intraoral contaminants test) test in the oral cavity in A. actinomycetemcomitans and the red complex in the experimental group and in the O’Leary index in the control group. Further, there was a significant change in the orange complex in the ATP test in the experimental group. Conclusions: A comprehensive analysis of the results revealed that the oral health care program for dental hygiene decreased the number of bacteria causing periodontal diseases in the oral cavity in both experimental and control groups.



1. Park HY. Effects of mouth rinsing and dosage with foamed vitamin C on oral environment changes in dental hygiene proces[Master’s thesis]. Busan: Univ. of Dongeui, 2019.   

2. Kim MH. Effect of L-ascorbic acid on collagen synthesis in 3T6 fibroblasts and primary cultured cells of chondrocytes. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2006;35(1):42-7. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2006.35.1.042   

3. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The association between periodontitis and systemic disease[Internet].[cited 2019 May 30]. Available from:   

4. Lee BJ. Contemporary update of mouth rinse. K Dent Assoc 2017;55(2):190-8.   

5. Barnett ML. The role of therapeutic antimicrobial mouthrinses in clinical practic: Control of supragingival plaque and gingivitis. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134(6):699-704. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2003.0255   

6.  Marsh PD. Controlling the oral biofilm with antimicrobial. J Dent 2010;38(1):11-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-5712(10)70005-1   

7.  Jung SH, Auh QS, Chun YH, Hong JP. The effect of S. thermophilus isolated from saliva treated with phytoncide on P. gingivalis . J Oral Med Pain 2009;34(1):23-37.   

8. Kim DH, Yoon YS, Joo KB, Lee KJ. The evaluation of efficacy on oral cavity cleaner(Dental Cleaner). Korean J Waters 2011;2(1):1-8.   

9. Gunsolley JC. Clinical efficacy of antimicrobial mouthrinses. J Dent 2010;38(1):6-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-5712(10)70004-X   

10. Hass AN, Pannuti CM, Andrade AKP, Escobar EC, Almeida ER, Costa FO, et al. Mouthwashes for the control of supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients: evidence-based recommendations for clinicians. Braz Oral Res 2014;28(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1590/1907-3107BOR-2014.vol28.0021  

11. Van Leeuwen MP, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA. Essential oils comparedto chlorhexidine with respect to plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation: asystematic review. J Periodontol 2011;82(2):174-94. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2010.100266  

12. James P, Worthington HV, Parnell C, Harding M, Lamont T, Cheung A, et al. Chlorhexidine mouthrinse as an adjunctive treatment for gingival health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;3:3-6. https://doi.org/10.100Kim JH, Ji CS, Jung BM, Kim BO, Yu SJ. Effect of mouthwash containing sun-dried salt on gingivitis and halitosis. Oral Biol Res 2015;39(2):120-6.  

13. Youn SH, Han JS, Kim AJ. Anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities of mouthwash prepared with acacia flower, songji, and topan solar salt. Asian J Beauty Cosmetol 2017;15(2):160-8. https://doi.org/10.20402/ajbc.2016.0119  

14. Son SH. The clinical and microbial effects of essential oil mouth rinse on periodontal disease[Doctoral dissertation]. Seoul: Univ. of Catholic, 2015.  

15. Kim JH, Ji CS, Jung BM, Kim BO, Yu SJ. Effect of mouthwash containing sun-dried salton gingivitis and halitosis. Oral Biol Res 2015;39(2):120-6.  

16. Cho BJ, Hong JY, Kim MJ, Song YO. Development of mouthwash products with solid fermented oriental medicinal herb. J Korea Soc Food Sci Nutr 2014;43(9):1380-7. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.9.1380  

17. Google. namu.wiki[Internet].[cited 2019 May 30].Available from:https://namu.wiki/w/%EB%B0%9C%ED%8F%AC%EC%A0%95   

18. Beak YR, Park JW, Lee JM, Suh JY. The effect of vitamin-C containing neutraceutical on periodontal wound healing as an adjunct to non-surgical or surgical periodontal treatment. J Korea Acad Periodontol 2008;39(2):157-66.  

19. Choi GY. A study on periodontal disease and antioxidant status determination using of saliva and buccal leukocytes[Doctoral dissertation]. Daegu: Univ. of Yeungnam, 2016.   

20. Pirkko JP, Tiina L, Georg A, Sirkka A, Pekka J. Periodontitis is associated with a low concentration of vitamin C in plasma. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2003;10(5):897-902. https://doi.org/10.1128/CDLI.10.5.897-902.2003  

21. Peak KY, Lee SJ. Correlation between vitamin C intake and periodontal disease: The fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey 2010. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2014;38(2):82-9. https://doi.org/10.11149/jkaoh.2014.38.2.82  

22.  Lee JH, Shin MS, Kim EJ, Ahn YB, Kim HD. The association of dietary vitamin C intake with periodontitis among Korean adults: Results from KNHANES Ⅳ. PLoS One 2017;12(5):1-14. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0177074  

23. Jeong SH, Ok SM, Huh JY, Ko MY, Ahn YW. A study for direct application of drug on oral mucosa. Korea J Oral Med 2010;35(4):229-35.   

24. Carr AC, Frei B. Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. American J Clinical Nutr 1999;69(6):1086-107. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/69.6.1086  

25. Choi YS, Kim SY, Choi SM, Jang HS, Kim BO. Effects of H O and ascorbic acid on TIMP-2, Type 1 collagen, and PDLs22 levels in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. J Korea Acad Periodontol 2007;37(4):655-69. https://doi.org/10.5051/jkape.2007.37.4.655  

26. Choi SH. Association of oral health and periodontal status due to vitamin intake of adults Korea[Master’s thesis]. Suwon: Univ. of Ajou, 2019.  

27. Haffajee AD, Teles RP, Socransky SS. Association of eubacterium nodatum and treponema denticola with human periodontitis lesions. Oral Microbiol Immuno 2006;21(5):269-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-302X.2006.00287.x  

28. Staudte H, Sigusch BW, Glockmann E. Grapefruit consumption improves vitamin C status in periodontitis patients. British Dent J 2005;199:213-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.4812613   



online submission
online submission
online submission
online submission
online submission
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Menu