Article | . Vol. 19, Issue. 2
Evaluation of physical property and cytotoxicity of resin infiltrant based on a triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)



Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health & Medical Sciences, Cheongju University1
Research Planning and Coordination Division, National Forensic Service2
Department of Dental Hygiene, Kyungpook National University3




.. 173:181


PDF XML




Objectives: The resin infiltration technique is a promising alternative therapy for arresting the early dental caries. However, there are very few reports on the safety and biocompatibility of this technique. We evaluated various properties of resin infiltrant (RI) based on a triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA).The water sorption (Wsp) and water solubility (Wsl) was assessed. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of RI against both animal and human fibroblast cell lines was investigated. Methods: The RI of the Icon®, the first product developed for resin infiltration, is mainly composed of TEGDMA in the resin matrix. The Wsp and Wsl for the RI were measured in accordance with ISO 4049 specifications. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for analyzing the polymerization before and after curing of RI. The cytotoxicity of RI against the mouse fibroblasts (L929) and human gingival fibroblasts (hTERT-hNOF) was evaluated using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results: Wsp and Wsl of the RI specimens were 53.37 μg/mm3 and 10.6 μg/mm3, respectively. FTIR analysis revealed a slightly higher degree of curing with longer irradiation time. The degree of conversion for RI was high (80.9%) after 40 seconds of light curing. There was a significant decrease in the viability of L929 and hTERT-hNOF cells at RI extraction solution concentrations above 50%, respectively, compared to that in the negative control (p< 0.05). Conclusions: Even though the RI exhibited positive effect on the early prevention of dental caries, the clinicians should also consider the toxicity of RI on periodontal tissues.



1. Thompson VP, Kaim JM. Nonsurgical treatment of incipient and hidden caries. Dent Clin North Am 2005;49:905-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cden.2005.05.003   

2. Fisher J, Click M. A new model for caries classification and management: the FDI World Dental Federation caries matrix. J Am Dent Assoc 2012;143:546-51. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2012.0216   

3. Paris S, Meyer-Lueckel H, Cölfen H, Kielbassa AM. Resin infiltration of artificial enamel caries lesions with experimental light curing resins. Dent Mater J 2007;26:582-8. https://doi.org/10.4012/dmj.26.582   

4. Kielbassa AM, Muller J, Gernhardt CR. Closing the gap between oral hygiene and minimally invasive dentistry: a review on the resin infiltration technique of incipient (proximal) enamel lesions. Quintessence Int 2009;40:663-81. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2009.972   

5. Paris S, Meyer-Lueckel H. Masking of labial enamel white spot lesions by resin infiltration--a clinical report. Quintessence Int 2009;40:713-8.   

6. Paris S, Meyer-Lueckel H. Inhibition of caries progression by resin infiltration in situ. Caries Res 2010;44:47-54. https://doi.org/10.1159/000275917   

7. Paris S, Schwendicke F, Seddig S, Müller WD, Dörfer C, Meyer-Lueckel H. Micro-hardness and mineral loss of enamel lesions after infiltration with various resins: influence of infiltrant composition and application frequency in vitro . J Dent 2013;41:543-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2013.03.006   

8. Rahiotis C, Zinelis S, Eliades G, Eliades T. Setting characteristics of a resin infiltration system for incipient caries treatment. J Dent 2015;43:715-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2015.03.010   

9. Goncalves F, Kawano Y, Pfeifer C, Stansbury JW, Braga RR. Influence of BisGMA, TEGDMA, and BisEMA contents on viscosity, conversion, and flexural strength of experimental resins and composites. Eur J Oral Sci 2009;117:442-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2009.00636.x   

10. Nalcaci A, Ulusoy N, Atakol O. Time-based elution of TEGDMA and BisGMA from resin composite cured with LED, QTH and high-intensity QTH lights. Oper Dent 2006;31:197-203. https://doi.org/10.2341/05-10   

11. Huang FM, Kuan YH, Lee SS, Chang YC. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of triethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate in macrophages involved in DNA damage and caspases activation. Environ Toxicol 2015;30:581-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.21935   

12. Eckhardt A, Gerstmayr N, Hiller KA, Bolay C, Waha C, Spagnuolo G, et al. TEGDMA-induced oxidative DNA damage and activation of ATM and MAP kinases. Biomaterials 2009;30:2006-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.12.045   

13. Eckhardt A, Müller P, Hiller KA, Krifka S, Bolay C, Spagnuolo G, et al. Influence of TEGDMA on the mammalian cell cycle in comparison with chemotherapeutic agents. Dent Mater 2010;26:232-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2009.10.005   

14. Spagnuolo G, Galler K, Schmalz G, Cosentino C, Rengo S, Schweikl H. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase amplifies TEGDMA-induced apoptosis in primary human pulp cells. J Dent Res 2004;83:703-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/154405910408300909   

15. Yoon SU, Nam IS. Behaviors-based safety management of dental professionals on dental amalgam and resin. J Dent Hyg Sci 2013;13:97-104.   

16. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 4049:2000. Dentistry -- Polymer-based filling, restorative and luting materials. Geneva: ISO Publishing; 2009.   

17. Fonseca AS, Labruna Moreira AD, de Albuquerque PP, de Menezes LR, Pfeifer CS, Schneider LF. Effect of monomer type on the C=C degree of conversion, water sorption and solubility, and color stability of model dental composites. Dent Mater 2017;33:394-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2017.01.010   

18. Araújo GS, Sfalcin RA, Araújo TG, Alonso RC, Puppin-Rontani RM. Evaluation of polymerization characteristics and penetration into enamel caries lesions of experimental infiltrants. J Dent 2013;41:1014-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2013.08.019   

19. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 10993-12:2012. Biological evaluation of medical devices -- Part 12: Sample preparation and reference materials. Geneva:ISO Publishing; 2012.   

20.  [20] Botsali MS, Kugöz A, Altinta SH, Ülker HE, Tanriver M, Kiliç S, et al. Residual HEMA and TEGDMA release and cytotoxicity evaluation of resin-modified glass ionomer cement and compomers cured with different light sources. Scientific World Journal 2014;28:2014:218295. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/218295  

21. Michelsen VB, Moe G, Skålevik R, Jensen E, Lygre H. Quantification of organic eluates from polymerized resin-based dental restorative materials by use of GC/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007;850:83-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.11.003   

22. Geurtsen-W, Leyhausen G. Chemical-biological interactions of the resin monomer triethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). J Dent Res 2001;80:2046-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345010800120401   

23. Engelmann J, Leyhausen G, Leibfritz D, Geurtsen W. Metabolic effects of dental resin components in vitro detected by NMR spectroscopy. J Dent Res 2001;80:869-75. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345010800030501   

24. Lin BA, Jaffer F, Duff MD, Tang YW, Santerre JP. Identifying enzyme activities within human saliva which are relevant to dental resin composite biodegradation. Biomaterials 2005;26:4259-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.11.001   

25. Lefeuvre M, Amjaad W, Goldberg M, Stanislawski L. TEGDMA induces mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in human gingival fibroblasts. Biomaterials 2005;26:5130-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.01.014   

26. Petropoulou A, Vrochari AD, Hellwig E, Stampf S, Polydorou O. Water sorption and water solubility of self-etching and self-adhesive resin cements. J Prosthet Dent 2015;114:674-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2015.06.002   

27. Malacarne J, Carvalho RM, de Goes MF, Svizero N, Pashley DH, Tay FR, et al. Water sorption/solubility of dental adhesive resins. Dent Mater 2006;22:973-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2005.11.020   

28. Silikas N, Eliades G, Watts DC. Light intensity effects on resin-composite degree of conversion and shrinkage strain. Dent Mater 2000;16:292-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(00)00020-8   

29. Schweikl H, Spagnuolo G, Schmalz G. Genetic and cellular toxicology of dental resin monomers. J Dent Res 2006;85:870-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/154405910608501001   

30. Odian G. Principles of polymerization. 4th ed. Hoboken:Wiley-Interscience; 2004: 255-63.   

31. Finger WJ, Lee KS, Podszun W. Monomers with low oxygen inhibition as enamel/dentin adhesives. Dent Mater 1996;12:256-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(96)80032-7   



online submission
online submission
online submission
online submission
online submission
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Menu