Article | . Vol. 19, Issue. 2
Correlation analysis between elderly oral myofunction, oral microorganisms, and cognitive function

Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Medical Science, Konyang University1

.. 161:172


Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the correlation between oral function, oral environment, and brain cognitive function in the elderly. Methods: The subjects were 60 users of senior community center and elderly day care center. The survey was conducted from November to December 2018. Subjects were assessed by oral examination and myofunction test. Oral myofunction was measured using IOPIR and Lip de CumR. Survey data were analyzed using the statistical programs of PASW Statistics ver. 18.0. Results: Tongue muscle strength and lips muscle strength was higher in males than in females. The tongue and lip strengths were higher in the <81 years old group than the ≥81 years old group. Functional tooth analysis showed that there was a ≥15 teeth group (40.91±7.36) and a <15 teeth group (32.52±7.14). Lip muscle strength analysis showed that the ≥15 teeth group (10.54±3.40) was higher than the <15 teeth group (8.20±2.41, p<0.05). Tongue muscle strength, lumbar muscle strength, and functional tooth number were lower in the elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Cognitive function was significantly correlated with functional tooth number (r=0.386, p<0.001), tongue strength (r=0.478, p<0.001), and lip strength (r=0.281, p<0.05). Tongue strength was significantly correlated with lip strength (r=0.360, p<0.001) and functional tooth number (r=0.633, p<0.001). Lip strength was significantly correlated with functional tooth number (r=0.376, p<0.001). Conclusions: These results showed that age and functional tooth number influenced oral muscle strength and that the number of functional teeth and oral muscle strength were low in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment. Oral myofunction training and oral care program are suggested to improve the quality of life of the elderly.

1. Cho DH, Baek SW, Song SI. Dental problems related with mastication and swallowing. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2017;7(7):42-48.   

2. Kossioni A, Bellou O. Eating habits in older people in Greece: the role of age, dental status and chewing difficulties. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2011;52(2):197-201.   

3. Statistics Korea. Korea Health Statistics 2015: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES Ⅵ-3). Chungcheongbuk-do: Korea Center for Disease Control & Prevention; 2015: 1-503.   

4. Kim JS, Kim SY, Jun EJ, Jeong SH, Kim JB. The number of existing permanent teeth and the denture status of elderly adults aged 65 years and above living in metropolitan cities using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2018;18(4):921-32.   

5. Hatch JP, Shinkai RS, Sakai S, Rugh JD, Paunovich ED. Determinants of masticatory performance in dentate adults. Arch Oral Biol 2001;46(7):641-8.   

6. Ranta K, Tuominen R, Paunio I, Seppänen R. Dental status and intake of food items among an adult Finnish population. Gerodontics 1988;4(1):32-5.   

7. Holland G, Jayasekeran V, Pendleton N, Horan M, Jones M, Hamdy S. Prevalence and symptom profiling of oropharyngeal dysphagia in a community dwelling of an elderly population: A self-reporting questionnaire survey. Dis Esophagus 2011:24(7):476-80.   

8. Park JS, Oh DH, Chang MY. Effect of expiratory muscle strength training on swallowing-related muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly individuals: a randomized controlled trial. Gerodontology 2017;34(1):121-8.   

9. Crary MA, Mann GD, Groher ME. Initial psychometric assessment of a functional oral intake scale for dysphagia in stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86(8):1516-20.   

10. Kim SH. Effects of nutrient intake on oral health and chewing difficulty by age group. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2018;19(2):202-9.   

11. Youmans SR, Youmans GL, Stierwalt JA. Differences in tongue strength across age and gender. Dysphagia 2009;24(1):57-65.   

12. Komagamine Y, Kanazawa M, Yamada A, Minakuchi S. Association between tongue and lip motor functions and mixing ability in complete denture wearers. Aging Clin Exp Res 2018 Nov 8.   

13. Ono Y, Yamamoto T, Kubo KY, Onozuka M. Occlusion and brain function: mastication as a prevention of cognitive dysfunction. J Oral Rehabil 2010;37(8):624-40.   

14. Juan Li, Hanzhang Xu, Wei Pan, Bei Wu. Association between tooth loss and cognitive decline: A 13-year longitudinal study of Chinese older adults. PLoS One 2017 Feb 3;12(2):e0171404.   

15. Kubo KY, Ichihashi Y, Kurata C, Iinuma M, Mori D, Katayama T, et al. Masticatory function and cognitive function. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn 2010;87(3):135-40.   

16. Hirao A, Murata S, Murata J, Kubo A, Hachiya M, Asami T. Relationships between the occlusal force and physical/cognitive functions of elderly females living in the community. J Phys Ther Sci 2014;26(8):1279–82.   

17. Ono Y, Yamamoto T, Kubo KY, Onozuka M. Occlusion and brain function: mastication as a prevention of cognitive dysfunction. J Oral Rehabil 2010;37(8):624-40.   

18. Health insurance review & assessment service. Ministry of health and welfare. People worry disease[Internet]. Medical Information Convergence Office 2016. [cited 2019 Mar 27] Available from:   

19. Clouston SA, Brewster P, Kuh D, Richards M, Cooper R, Hardy R, et al. The dynamic relationship between physical function and cognition in longitudinal aging cohorts. Epidemiol Rev 2013;35:33-50.   

20. Listl S. Oral health conditions and cognitive functioning in middle and later adulthood. BMC Oral Health 2014;14:70.   

21. Yamamoto T, Kondo K, Hirai H, Nakade M, Aida J, Hirata Y. Association between self-reported dental health status and onset of dementia: a 4-year prospective cohort study of older Japanese adults from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study(AGES) Project. Psychosom Med 2012;74(3):241-8.   

22. Takeuchi K, Izumi M, Furuta M, Takeshita T, Shibata Y, Kageyama S, et al. Posterior teeth occlusion associated with cognitive function in nursing home older residents: A cross-sectional observational study. PLoS One 2015:29;10(10):e0141737.   

23. Laguna L, Sarkar A, Artigas G, Chen J. A quantitative assessment of the eating capability in the elderly individuals. Physiol Behav 2015;1(147):274-81.   

24. Ikebe K, Matsuda K, Kagawa R, Enoki K, Yoshida M, Maeda Y, et al. Association of masticatory performance with age, gender, number of teeth, occlusal force and salivary flow in Japanese older adults: Is ageing a risk factor for masticatory dysfunction? Arch Oral Biol 2011;56(10):991-6.   

25. Hara K, Tohara H, Kenichiro K, Yamaguchi K, Ariya C, Yoshimi K, et al. Association between tongue muscle strength and masticatory muscle strength. J Oral Rehabil 2019;46(2):134-9.   

26. Hatch JP, Shinkai RS, Sakai S, Rugh JD, Paunovich ED, Determinants of masticatory performance in dentate adults. Arch Oral Biol 2011;46(7):641-8.   

27. Cho DH, Baek SW, Song SI. Dental problems related with mastication and swallowing. Journal of the Korean Dysphagia Society (JKDS) 2017;7:42-8.   

28. Takeuchi K, Aida J, Ito K, Furuta M, Yamashita Y, Osaka K. Nutritional status and dysphagia risk among community-dwelling frail older adults. J Nutr Health Aging 2014;18(4):352-7.   

29. Kawashima K, Motohashi Y, Fujishima I. Prevalence of dysphagia among community-dwelling elderly individuals as estimated using a questionnaire for dysphagia screening. Dysphagia 2004;19(4):266-71.  

30. Kim MS, Park YH. The risk of dysphagia and dysphagia-specific quality of life among community dwelling older adults in senior center. Korean J Adult Nurs 2014;26(4):393-402.   

31. Robbins J, Kays SA, Gangnon RE, Hind JA, Hewitt AL, Gentry LR, et al. The effects of lingual exercise in stroke patients with dysphagia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88(2):150-8.   

32. Scott R, Youmans. Oral strength comparisons across age and sex in healthy volunteers. MRA 2015:2(2):8-15.   

33. Ertekin C, Aydogdu I. Neurophysiology of swallowing. Clin Neurophysiol 2003;114(12):2226-44.   

34. Sakai K, Nakayama E, Tohara H, Takahashi O, Ohnishi S, Tsuzuki H, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of lip force and tongue strength for sarcopenic dysphagia in older inpatients: A cross-sectional observational study. Clin Nutr 2019;38(1):303-9. 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.01.016   

35. Marshall TA, Warren JJ, Hand JS, Xie XJ, Stumbo PJ. Oral health, nutrient intake and dietary quality in the very old. J Am Dent Assoc 2002;133(10):1369–79.   

36. Sagawa K, Furuya H, Ohara Y, Yoshida M, Hirano H, Iijima K, et al. Tongue function is important for masticatory performance in the healthy elderly: a cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling elderly. J Prosthodont Res 2019;63(1):31-4.   

online submission
online submission
online submission
online submission
online submission
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Menu