Article | October. 2018 Vol. 18, Issue. 5
Reduction of causative organisms associated with dental caries and alteration of oral hygiene status in connection with toothbrushing instruction for preschool children



Department of Biomedical Health Science, Graduate, Dongeui University1
Department of Dental Hygiene, Daegu Health College2
Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University3
Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Sciences, Choonhae4




2018.October. 831:842


PDF XML




Objectives: This study was conducted to reveal the biological basis of dental plaque and preschool children’s dental health status through repetitive and continuous toothbrushing instruction to preschool children, using quantitative criteria, and to emphasize the importance of the role of an oral health manager for the prevention of dental caries. Methods: After IRB approval, toothbrushing instruction and oral microbial specimen collection were conducted with children of preschool age at the Daycare Center attached to D. University, Busan. Specimens from 27 children were characterized by analysis with real-time multi-chain enzymatic polymerization reaction technique at an agency specializing in genetic analysis. Results: In a survey of the children’s dental health behaviors, 48.1% responded that the toothbrushing time is 91 to 150 seconds; 66.7% responded that the frequency of toothbrushing is more than three times per day; 81.5% stated that they performed tongue brushing; and 81.5% brushed their teeth. Regarding levels of dental cariogenic bacteria, after children received continuous toothbrushing instruction, there were reductions in both Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Regarding toothbrushing time, the time increased in relation to the presence of instruction. Regarding Quigley Hein Index, the index decreased in the early and middle periods upon addition of instruction, then increased in the middle and later periods. Conclusions: Through persistent and repetitive toothbrushing instruction, healthy behavior can be positively established in children of preschool age; it is necessary to prepare institutional measures so opportunities for dental health education can be consistently provided and maintained. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct a follow-up study to verify the factors affecting toothbrushing time and volume of oral pathogens.



1. Kang YS, Kwon IS. Health status of vulnerable preschool children and their mothers’health management. Child Health Nurs Res 2013;19(3):159-67.  

2. Shin SJ, Ryu DY, Bae SM, Choi YK. Evaluation on the oral health promotion program effect from a Part of community child center. J Dent Hyg Sci 2011;11(3):163-71.  

3. Kim HK, Bae SM, Shin SJ, Ryu DY, Son JH, Eom MR, et al. The comparison of effect in oral health education frequency for elementary school students from a part of community child center. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2011;11(5):759-71.  

4. Kim JH, Jung EK, Choi YH, Song KB. The comparison of the characteristics of Streptococcus mutans isolated from caries free and high caries children. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2012;36(1):1-6.   

5. Shin BM, Jung SH. Socio-economic inequalities in dental caries in Korea. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2012;36(2):144-52.   

6. Ma JK, Cho MJ. Effect of health behaviors on oral health in Korean adolescents. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2016;40(2):100-4.   

7. Yang JY. A GIS-ased public health-geographical analysis of oral health programs for primary school students. J Dent Hyg Sci 2013;13(2):174-81.   

8. Park IS. Effects of oral health education considering integrated factors : focused on children in some community child centers. J Digital Convergence 2015;13(10):359-66.   

9. Moon SJ, Park JH, Choi YC, Choi SC. The study of changes in oral health care of preschoolers in taebaek city through oral hygiene education. J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent 2009;36(1):71-7.  

10. Choi YK, Lee MS, Bae SM, Son JH, Ryu DY. Evaluation on the oral health promotion program effect from some part of community child center. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society 2013;14(8):3850-7.   

11. Kang BH, Park SN, Shong KY, Moon JS. Effect of a tooth-brushing education program on oral health of preschool children. J Korean Acad Nurs 2008;38(6):914-22.   

12. Peters IR, Helps CR, Hall EJ, Day MJ. Real-time RT-PCR considerations for efficient and sensitive assay design. J Immunol Methods 2004;286:3-17.   

13. Chu CH, Ho PL, Lo E. Oral health status and behaviours of preschool children in Hong Kong. BMC Public Health 2012;12(767):914-22.   

14. Choi YR, Kang MK. Antibacterial effect of tea tree on Streptococcus mutans . J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2017;17(4):613-20.   

15. Choi HN, Lee JW, Lee SM. The oral health status of the preschool child according to the oral health management behaviors performed by their parents. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2017;17(6):1225-35.   

16. Quigley GA, Hein JW. Comparative cleansing efficiency of manual and power brushing. J American Dent Assoc 1962;65:26-9.   

17. Turesky S, Gilmore ND, Glickman I. Reduced plaque formation by the chloromethyl analogue of vitamine C. J Periodontol 1970;41(1):41- 3.  

18. Lee HN, Kim JH. The effect of inter dental brush education on the dental plaque index and the degree of halitosis for elementary school students. J Korean Biol Nurs Sci 2014;16(1):8-16.  

19. Deacon SA, Glenny AM, Deery C, Robinson PG, Heanue M, Walmsley AD, et al. Different powered toothbrushes for plaque control and gingival health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;8(12):CD004974.  

20. Lee JY. A study on practice behavior of toothbrushing in preschool children by observing survey. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2010;10(6):1129-39.   

21. Tolvanen M, Lahti S, Hausen H. Changes in toothbrushing frequency in relation to changes in oral health-related knowledge and attitudes among children-a longitudinal study. Eur J oral Sci 2010;118(3):284-9.   

22. Kay E, Locker DA. Systematic review of the effectiveness of health promotion aimed at improving oral health. Community Dent Health 1998;15(3):132-44.   

23. Andrew R, Gay D, Maryann W, Maryann C, Randy J, Ronald L, et al. Six‐month comparison of powered versus mannual toothbrushing for safety and efficacy in the absence of professional instruction in mechanical plaque control. J Periodontol 2002;73(7):770-8.   

24. You EK, Shon MY, Choi SC, Kim KC, Park YD, Park JH. Plaque control effect of tooth brushing instruction. J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent 2012;39(1):17-25.   

25. Moon JS, Song BS, Park SN. Oral health behavior and dental health status of preschool children. J Korean Community Nursing 2004;15(4):618-27.   



online submission
online submission
online submission
online submission
online submission
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Menu