Department of Dental Hygiene, Kwangju Women’s University1
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze relationship between oral health status and subjective oral malodor awareness of public health students. Furthermore, this study aimed to recognize the importance of prevention and treatment of internal and external factors and to contribute to the correct oral health management behavior. Methods: The study subjects were 500 students from 5 health departments of 2 universities located in Jeollanamdo who participated in self-administered survey from September 1 to 15, 2014. For statistical analysis, SPSS 21.0 for Windows was used. Descriptive analysis and a Chi-square test were conducted to investigate the effects of general characteristics, health behavior, oral health behavior, and oral health status on subjective oral malodor awareness. Finally, to investigate the relationship between oral health status and subjective oral malodor awareness logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Subjective oral malodor awareness was significantly higher in the group requiring dental care with the score of 1.63 (95% CI 1.00-2.65) compared to the group not requiring dental care. Subjective oral malodor awareness was significantly higher in the severe coated tongue group with the score of 5.31 (95% CI 1.45-19.40) and significantly higher in the moderate coated tongue group with the score of 2.56 (95% CI 1.61-4.08). Subjective oral malodor awareness was significantly higher in the often mouth breathing group with the score of 2.13 (95% CI 1.02-4.47) and significantly higher in the sometimes mouth breathing group with the score of 2.66 (95% CI 1.65-4.29). Conclusions: In order to prevent oral malodor, it is emphasized that regular dental checkups, proper brushing after the meal, and brushing of the tongue are necessary to remove the coated tongue. In addition, the use of supplementary oral care products is considered to be a meaningful oral health behavior.
1. Bosy A. Oral malordour: Philosophical and practical aspects. J Can Dent Assoc 1997;63: 196-201.
2. Jee YJ, Kim JS, Lee JH, Jeon ES. A study on the relationship between halitosis developments and oral environmental. J Dent Hyg Sci 2010;10(2):101-7.
3. Ma DS, Paik DI. A study on the effect of oral hygiene methods in reduction of oral malodor. J Korean Acad Dent Health 1990;14(1):91-8.
4. Kim YG. Bad Breath: Causes and treatment of bad breath. 1st ed. Seoul: Shinheung international; 2008: 12-3.
5. Kim KE, Choi MH. The relation of salivary secretion, the oral care and the oral malodor. The Chung-Ang Journal of Nursing 2001;5(2):55-60.
6. Hye HY, Shin SC, Cho JW, Park KS. A Study about the relationship between worker`s mouth-odor survey and factor analysis. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2005;29(3):368-84.
7. Baik DI, Shin SC, Cho JW, Chang YS, Lee MG. Oral malodor control. 1st ed. Seoul: Pacific books;2011:1-42.
8. Seemann R, Bizhang M, Djamchidi C, Kage A, Nachnani S. The proportion of pseudo- halitosis patients in a multidisciplinary breath malodour consultation. Int Dent J 2006;56(2): 77-81. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1875-595x.2006.tb00077.x
9. Suzuki N, Yoneda M, Naito T, Iwamoto T, Hirofuji T. Relationship between halitosis and psychologic status. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;106(4):542-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2008.03.009
10. Tonzetich J, Johnson PW. Chemical analysis of thiol, disulphide and total sulphur content of human saliva. Arch Oral Biol 1977;22(2):125-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9969(77)90089-9
11. Kim YG, Jeong SC, Lee SW. Bad breath: research perspectives. 2nd ed. Seoul: Shinheung international; 1998: 1-23.
12. Hong JP. Halitosis. Journal of Kyung Hee University Medical Center 2000;16(1):4-8.
13. Spouge JD. Hemostasis in dentistry, whit special reference to hemocoagulation: 3.Principles underlying clinical hemostatic practices in patients with faulty coagulation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1964;18(4):701-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(64)90387-1
14. Lee JS, Yoon YM, Lee HS, Kim SN. Restricted activity with oral disease in a Korean university student. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2001;25(3):245-58.
15. Kim YI. A study on the health science college student’s dental health behaviors. J Dent Hyg Sci 2008;8(1):23-33.
16. Romano F, Pigella E, Guzzi N, Aimetti M. Patients’ self-assessment of oral malodour and its relationship with organoleptic scores and oral conditions. Int J Dent Hyg 2010;18(1):41-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5037.2009.00368.x
17. Eldarrat A, Alkhabuli J, Malik A. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis and oral hygiene practices among libyan students and office workers. Libyan J Med 2008;13(4):170-6. https:// doi.org/10.4176/080527
18. McKeown L. Social relations and breath odour. Int J Dent Hygiene 2003;1(4):213-7. https:// doi.org/10.1034/j.1601-5037.2003.00056.x
19. Tonzetich J. Production and origin of oral malodor: a review of mechanism and methods of analysis. J Periodontol 1977;48(1):13-20. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.19126.96.36.199
20. Kwon JH, Chang MT, Ryu SH, Kim HS. A study on the relationship between oral malodor and periodontal disease. J Korean Acad Periodontol 2000;30(1):203-12. https://doi.org/10.5051/ jkape.2000.30.1.203
21. Yoon MS, Youn HJ. A study on subjective symptoms of a oral malodor in Korean adults. J Dent Hyg Sci 2008;8(3):123-9.
22. Choi JK. The extraoral cause of halitosis. J Kor Dent Assoc 1998;36(1):32-5.
23. Eli I, Bath R, Koriat H, Rosenberg M. Self-perception of breath odor. J Am Dent Assoc 2001;132(5):621-6. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2001.0239
24. Lee YO, Hong JP, Lee TY. Halitosis and related factors among rural residents. J Oral Med Pain 2007;32(2):157-75.
25. Lee MR, Choi JS. Self-reported halitosis and the associated factors in adults. J Dent Hyg Sci 2013;13(2):142-50.
26. Lee SO. Oral environmental factors influencing the halitosis development[Doctoral dissertation]. Cheongju: Univ. of Chungbuk National, 2015.
27. Jung HY. A clinical study on the oral malodor related to the saliva and tongue plaque[Master’s thesis]. Cheonan: Univ. of Dankook, 2007.
28. Iwanicka-Grzegorek E, Michalik J, Kepa J, Wierzbicka M, Aleksinski M, Pierzynowska E. Subjective patients’opinion and evaluation of halitosis using halimeter and organoleptic scores. Oral Dis 2005;11(Suppl 1):86-8.
29. Persson S, Edlund MB, Claesson R, Carlsson J. The formation of hydrogen sulfide and methyl-mercaptan by oral bacteria. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1990;5(4):195-201. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1399-302x.1990.tb00645.x
30. Figueiredo LC, Rosetti EP, Marcantonio Jr E, Marcantonio RAC, Salvador SL. The relationship of malodor in patients with or without periodontal disease. J Periodontol 2002;73:1338-42. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2002.73.11.1338
31. Cicek Y, Orbak R, Tezel A. Orbak Z, Erciyas K. Effect of tongue brushing on oral malodor in adolescents. Pediatr Int 2003;45(6):719-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200x.2003.01804.x
32. Seemann R, Kison A, Bizhang M, Zimmer S. Effectiveness of mechanical tongue cleaning on oral levels of volatile sulfur compounds. JADA 2001;132(9):1263-7. https://doi.org/10.14219/ jada.archive.2001.0369
33. Weiler RM, Fisberg M, Barroso AS, Nicolau J, Simi R, Siqueira WL Jr. A study of the influence of mouthbreathing in some parameters of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva of adolescents. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006;70(5):799-805. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.ijporl.2005.09.008
34. Jo ED, Han GS. Influencing factors in the halitosis. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2012;36(4): 272-81. https://doi.org/10.11149/jkaoh.2012.36.4.272
35. Koo HM, Au QS, Chun YH, Hong JP. Change of the amylase secretion on the rat submandibular gland in the restraint stress condition. Korean J Oral Med 2007;32(1):57-67.
36. Lim HR, Jeon SY, Jo KH, Ju AI, Kim SH. Relationship between stress, oral health, and quality of life in university students. J Dent Hyg Sci 2016;16(4):310-6.
37. Carvalho MD, Tabchoury CM, Cury JA, Toledo S, Nogueiro-Filho GR. Impact of mouthrinses on morning bad breath in health subjects. J Clin Periodontol 2004;31(2):85-90. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.0303-6979.2004.00452.x