Department of Biomedical Health Science, Dong-eui University1
The baobab tree is a multipurpose, widely-used species with medicinal properties and numerous food uses. The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of baobab on the formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rat model injected into the orofacial regions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 260-280 g were used. Pain in the orofacial region was induced using two models, 5% formalin was injected 50 μl subcutaneously or 30 μl in temporomandibular joint (TMJ), respectively. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n=6); formalin, formalin after distilled water (vehicle) or baobab (150, 300 mg/kg). The number of noxious behavioral responses with scratching the facial region was recorded for 9 successive 5-min intervals following formalin injection. There was no significant difference in the first response to the pain between the formalin induced group and the drug administration group. However, in the secondary infusion group, all of the pain medication were responded (Bao 150, 300 mg/kg) (p <0.05). The results showed analgesic effect of baobab on formalin-induced orofacial inflammatory pain. This suggests that the natural product is an effective alternative to the postinflammatory pain control.
1. Sidibe M, Williams JT. Baobab, Adansonia digitata L. International Centre for Underutilised Crops University of Southampton, UK 2002.
2. Stadlmayr B, Charrondière UR, Eisenwagen S, Jamnadass R, Kehlenbeck K. Nutrient composition of selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa. J Sci Food Agric 2013; 93(11):2627-36.
3. Gebauer J, El-Siddig K, Ebert G. Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.): a review on a multipurpose tree with promising future in the Sudan. Eur J Hort Sci 2002;67:155-60.
4. Buchmann C, Prehsler S, Hartl A, Vogl CR. The importance of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in rural West African subsistence-suggestion of a cautionary approach to international market export of baobab fruits. Ecol Food Nutr 2010;49:145-72.
5. Diop AG, Sakho M, Dornier M, Cisse M, Reynes M. Le baobab africain (Adansonia digitata L.): principales caracte ´ristiques et utilisations. Fruits 2005;61:55-69.
6. Fao (Food and Agricultural Organisation). Aperc us nutritionnels par pays-Be nin. ESNA- FAO, Rome, Italy, 2003.
7. Codjia JTC, Assogbadjo AE, Ekue MRM. Diversite et valorisation au niveau local des ressources ve ge tales forestie res alimentaires du Be nin. Cahiers Agricultures 2003;12: 321-31.
8. Yang KY, Kim MS, Kim EK, Kong MS, Ahn JS, Lee JH, et al. High dose of QX-314 produces anti-nociceptive effect without capsaicin in rats with inflammatory TMJ pain. International Journal of Oral Biology 2013;38(4):135-40.
9. Cairns BE. Pathophysiology of TMD pain-basic mechanisms and their implications for pharmacotherapy. J Oral Rehabil 2010;37:391-410.
10. Scrivani SJ, Keith DA, Kaban LB. Temporomandibular disorders. N Engl J Med 2008;359: 2693-705.
11. Wadhwa S, Kapila S. TMJ disorders: future innovations in diagnostics and therapeutics. J Dent Educ 2008;72:930-47.
12. Barretto SR, de Melo GC, dos Santos JC, de Oliveira MG, Pereira-Filho RN, Alves AV, et al. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive and anti- inflammatory activity of low-level laser therapy on temporomandibular joint inflammation in rodents. J Photochem Photobiol B 2013;129:135-42.
13. Kim YK, Lee MK. Analgesic effects of triptolide and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in rat’s temporomandibular joint pain model. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2015;15:800-6.
14. Park MK, Lee JH, Yang GY, Won KA, Kim MJ, Park YY, et al. Peripheral administration of NR2 antagonists attenuates orofacial formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2011;35(4):982-6.
15. Yoon IJ, Kang SK, Auh QS, Chun YH, Hong JP. The effects of repeated restraint stress on the rat parotid glands, ultramicroscopical and histochemical study. Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain 2013;38(2):189-93.
16. Choi JL, Song CW. The study for treatment fo temporo-mandibular joint pain. The Korean Journal of Pain 1995;8(1):86-92.
17. Kim YS, Kim CH. 8 Cases of temporomandibular disorder. The Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society 1996;13(1):429-35.
18. Kim YK, Hyun KY, Lee MK. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of acaiberry in formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. J Dent Hyg Sci 2014;14(2):240-7.
19. Lee HJ, Kim YK, Choi JH, Lee JH, Kim HJ, Seong MG, el al. Effects of red or black ginseng extract in a rat model of inflammatory temporomandibular joint pain. J Dent Hyg Sci 2017;17(1):65-72.
20. Mpiana PT, Misakabu FS, Tshibangu DST, Ngbolua KN, Mwanangombo DT. Antisickling activity and membrane stabilizing effect of anthocyanins extracts from Adansonia digitata L. barks on sickle blood cells. International Blood Research& Reviews 2014;2(5):198-212.
21. Rahul J, Jain MK, Singh SP, Kamal RK, Anuradha, Naz A, et al. Adansonia digitata L. (baobab): a review of traditional information and taxonomic description. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2015;5(1):79-84.
22. Tapsoba H, Deschamps JP. Use of medicinal plants for the treatment of oral diseases in Burkina Faso. J Ethnopharmcol 2006;104:68-78.
23. Dickenson AH, Sullivan AF. Subcutaneous formalin-inducedactivity of dorsal horn neurons in the rat: differential response to an intrathecal opiate administration pre- or post-formalin. Pain 1987;30:349-60.
24. Tjolsen A, Berge OG, Hunskaar S, Rosland JH, Hole K. The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain 1992;51:5-17.