Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University1
BK21 PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Department of Public Health Sciences,Graduate School, Korea University2
Department of Dental Hygiene, Yeoju Institute of Technology3
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of calcium concentration in saliva on dental caries activity after consuming calcium.A total of 59 adult women aged 20 to 40 years were surveyed for calcium intake. The daily average calcium intake was analyzed through dietary records of the subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily average calcium intake. Salivary pH and concentrations of minerals in the saliva were obtained from A group and B group. Calcium (Ca2+)) and magnesium (Mg2+) concentrations in saliva were measured by HPLC-Ion chromatography using 15 mM sulfuric acid. The dental caries activity test was quantified by salivary buffer capacity test and plaque pH test. The mean Ca2+ concentrations of A group was 12.75 μg/m, the mean Ca2+concentrations in the B group was 16.30 μg/mL (p<0.05) and respectively, Mg2++ concentrations were found to be 0.48 μg/mL and 0.51 μg/mL. Calcium intake and calcium concentration in saliva showed a significant correlation (r=0.380). The mean Ca2+ concentrations in saliva was higher in the high calcium intake group. Therefore, calcium intake in saliva was correlated with dental caries.
1. Keyes PH. Present and future measures for dental caries control. J Am Dent Assoc 1969;79(6): 1395-404. https://doi.org/10.14219/jada .archive.1969.0037
2. Loesche WJ. Role of streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 1986;50(4): 353-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9969(73)90078-2
3. Navia JM. Evaluation of nutritional and dietary factors that modify animal caries. J Dent Res 1970;49(6):1213-28. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345700490060701
4. Kim JG, Cheon CW, Lee DC, Baik BJ. Relationship between dietary habits and dental caries experience in preschool children. J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent 2001;28(2):217-80.
5. Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff JL. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. 5th ed. Wadsworth, Canada: Cengage Learning; 2009: 431-7.
6. National research council study committee on the scientific evaluation of dietary reference intake: Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. National Academy Press 1997;288-313. https://doi.org/10.17226/5776
7. La Fontaine A, Zavgorodniy A, Liu H, Zheng R, Swain M, Cairney J. Atomic-scale compositional mapping reveals Mg-rich amorphous calcium phosphate in human dental enamel. Sci Adv 2016;2(9):e1601145. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1601145
8. Levin MP, Yearwood LL, Carpenter WN. The desensitizing effect of calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide on hypersensitive dentin. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1973;35(5): 741-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(73)90044-3
9. Krall EA, Wehler C, Garcia RI, Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly. Am J Med 2001;111(6):452-6. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/s0002-9343(01)00899-3
10. Adegboye AR, Twetman S, Christensen LB, Heitmann BL. Intake of dairy calcium and tooth loss among adult danish men and women. Nutrition 2012;28(7-8):779-84. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.011
11. Somborac M. Improving nutrition for better oral health. J Can Dent Assoc 2010;76:a131. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.4814287
12. Flood A, Peters U, Chatterjee N, Lacey JV Jr, Schairer C, Schatzkin A. Calcium from diet and supplements is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(1):126-32.
13. Dimal HP, Porta S, Wirnsberger G, Lindschinger M, Pamperl I, Dobnig H, et al. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83(8):2742-8. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.83.8.5015
14. Fogarty A, Lewis SA, Scrivener SL, Antoniak M, Pacey S, Pringle M, et al. Oral magnesium and vitamin C supplements I asthma: a parallel group randomized plcacebo-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33(10):1355-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2004.022616
15. Lussi A, Jaeggi T, Zero D. The role of diet in the aetiology of dental erosion. Caries Res 2004;38(1):34-44. https://doi.org/10.1159/000074360
16. Danielsson NL, Hernell O, Johansson l. Human milk compounds inhibiting adhesion of mutans streptococci to host ligand-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. Caries Res 2009;43(3):171-8. https://doi.org/10.1159/000213888
17. Kashket S, DePaola DP. Cheese consumption and the development and progression of dental caries. Nutr Rev 2002;60(4):97-103. https://doi.org/10.1301/00296640260085822
18. Kaufman E, Lamster IB. The diagnostic applications of saliva- a review. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2002;13(2):197-212. https://doi.org/10.1177/154411130201300209
19. Llena-Puy C. The role of saliva in maintaining oral health and as an aid to diagnosis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2006;11(5):499-55. https://doi.org/10.4317/medoral.19393
20. Dawes C. What is the critical pH and why does a tooth dissolve in acid? J Can Dent Assoc 2003;69(11):722-4.
21. Yu BS, Yuan QG, Nie LH, Yao SZ. Ion chromatographic determination of calcium and magnesium cations in human saliva and urine with a piezoelectric detector. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2001;25(5-6):1027-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0731-7085(01)00378-8
22. de Caland LB, Silveira EL, Tubino M. Determination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium cations in biodiesel by ion chromatography. Anal Chim Acta 2012;718:116-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.12.062
23. Williams T, Bamett NW. Determination of magnesium and calcium by ion chromatography with post-column reaction fluorescence detection. Anal Chim Acta 1992;259(1):19-23. https://doi. org/10.1016/0003-2670(92)85069-i
24. Maldupa I, Brinkmane A, Mihailova A. Comparative analysis of CRT Buffer, GC saliva check buffer tests and laboratory titration to evaluate saliva buffering capacity. Stomatologija 2011; 13(2):55-61.
25. Walsh LJ, Tsang AK. Chairside testing for cariogenic bacteria: current concepts and clinical strategies. Int Dent South Afr 2008;10(2):50-65.
26. Baek DI. Preventive dentistry. Komoonsa Diet control. Publication No. 978-89-7386-470-6. 2011.
27. Keyes PH. Present and future measures for dental caries control. J Am Dent Assoc 1969;79(6): 1395-404. https://doi.org /10.14219/ jada.archive.1969.0037
28. Bradford EW, Crabb HSM. Carbohydrate restriction and caries incidence. Brit Dent J 1961; 111:273-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9969(62)90111-5
29. Navia JM. Evaluation of nutritional and dietary factors that modify animal caries. J Dent Res 1970;49(6):1213-28. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/ 00220345700490060701
30. So YR, Baik BJ, Kim JG, Yang YM, Kim HN. The study for the mineral contents of bottled water. J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent 2009;36(3);404-11.
31. Kim JH, Shin CS. Calcium metabolism and hyper and hypoparathyroidism. Hanyang Med Rev 2012;32(4):179-86. https://doi.org/10.7599/hmr.2012.32.4.179
32. Gustafsson BE, Quensel CE, Lanke LS, Lundqvist C, Grahnen H, Bonow BE, et al. The Vipeholm dental caries study; the effect of different levels of carbohydrate intake on caries activity in 436 individuals observed for five year. Acta Odontol Scand 1954;11(3-4):232-64. https://doi.org/10.3109/00016355308993925
33. Lee DH, Hong SO, Lee SR. Dental caries management of a patient with a high caries risk based on the caries risk assessment: A case report. J Kor Soc Dent Matr 2016;43(3):231-8. https://doi.org/10.14815/kjdm.2016.43.3.231
34. Jeong SJ, Apostolska S, Jankulovska M, Angelova D, Nares S, Yoon MS, et al. Dental caries risk can be predicted by simply measuring the pH and buffering capacity of saliva. J Korean Soc Hyg Sci 2006;6(3):159-62. https://doi.org/10.13065/iksdh.2013.13.4.701
35. Bradshaw DJ, Marsh PD. Analysis of pH-driven disruption of oral microbial communities in vitro. Caries Res 1998;32(6):456-62. https://doi.org/10.1159/000016487
36. Kim MY, Lee HJ. Influence of soft drinks supplemented calcium to enamel remineralization. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2008;8(3):13-22.
37. Edwards M, Creanor SL, Foye RH, Gilmour WH. Buffering capacities of soft drinks: the potential influence on dental erosion. J Oral Rehabil 1999;26(12):923-7. https://doi.org/10.1046/ j.1365-2842.1999.00494.x
38. Kim HN. Relationship between intake of energy and protein and permanent teeth caries. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2016;16(6):943-53. https://doi.org/10.13065/jksdh.2016.16.06.943
39. Kim HN, Min JH, Kim KR. Relationship between intake of vitamins and minerals and caries of primary teeth. J Dent Hyg Sci 2014;14(3):371-8. https://doi.org/10.17135/jdhs.2014.14.3.371
40. Chiappin S, Antonelli G, Gatti R, De Palo EF. Saliva specimen: A new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation. Clin Chim Acta 2007;383(1-2):30-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.cca.2007.04.011
41. Park YD, Jang JH, Oh YJ, Kwon HJ. Analyses of organic acids and inorganic anions and their relationship in human saliva before and after glucose intake. Arch Oral Biol 2014;59(1):1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.archoralbio. 2013.10.006