Department of Public Health, The Graduate School, Catholic University of Daegu1
Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University2
Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University3
Department of Occupational Health, Catholic University of Daegu4
Department of Dental Hygiene, Youngnam Foreign Language College5
Objectives: This study was conducted to suggest the necessity of education about toothpaste usage to infants, preschoolers, and their parents. Also, another purpose is to provide basic data that is necessary for oral health education about accurate cognition and usage of toothpaste. Methods: From October to December 2015, we conducted a survey on parents of 0~4 years old infants and preschoolers about toothpaste usage based on the data of a questionnaire with a total of 505 subjects. The survey questions were composed of general characteristics of infants, preschoolers and their parents, and toothpaste usage. Results: Usage frequency of toothpaste for infants and preschoolers increased with age (p<0.001), and infants and preschoolers in homes with monthly income under 4 million won showed high frequency of toothpaste usage (p<0.001). Toothpaste mouth rinsing of infants and preschoolers increased with age (p<0.001), while on the other hand, toothpaste swallowing decreased (p<0.001). Conclusions: In this study, it was shown that the factors that effect toothpaste usage in infants and preschoolers were age and average monthly income of the family. This suggests the necessity of oral health education to parents about usage of toothpaste in infants and preschoolers.
1. Preventive Dental Research. Preventive dentistry. Seoul: Koonja; 2008: 111-6.
2. Hwang DG. Toothpaste development trend analysis - About composition - [Master’s thesis]. Gwangju: Univ. of Chonnam National, 2016.
3. Hong SG, Park YN, Jeong SS, Ha MO, Choi CH, Lee KH. Fluoride concentration of commercial dentifrices for children in Korea. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2008;32(2):143-51.
4. Chun JY, Kang YH, Lee KH. A study on the use of dentifrice among infants and preschoolers. J Den Hyg Sci 2008;8(4):267-74.
5. Shim YS, Jeong MA, Jeong SH. The change of salivary and oral bacteria amount by composition of SLS contents of toothpaste. J Korea Acad Industr Coop Soc 2010;11(9):3341-6.
6. Jeong HY, Kim YS, Jeong MA. Variations of oral cavity environment according to sodium lauryl sulfate concentration of toothpaste. J Korea Cont Assoc 2010;10(8):240-8.
7. Park SR, Kim YM, Choi BB, Kim JY. The effect of the cytotoxicity of sodium lauryl sulfate containing toothpaste on HaCaT and NIH-3T3 cells. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2015;15(4):719-25. https://doi.org/10.13065/jksdh.2015.15.04.719
8. Kweon HJ, Shin SC. A clinical study on the residual amounts of SLS from dentifrice in oral cavity after toothbrushing. J Korean Acad Dent Health 1991;15(2):281-90.
9. Kim JY. The effect of toothpaste abrasive on the relative tooth abrasivity[Master’s thesis]. Seoul: Univ. of Seoul National, 2015.
10. Zohoori FV, Duckworth RM, Omid N, O’Hare WT, Maguire A. Fluoridated toothpaste usage and ingestion of fluoride by 4- to 6-yr-old children in England. Eur J Oral Sci 2012;120:415-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2012.00984.x
11. Chun JY, Lee HO, Kang YH. The amount of dentifrice used by opening diameter size and current status of commercial dentifrices for children in Korea. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2010; 10(3):541-53.
12. Kim HK, Bae SM, Kho YL, Jung SH. Fluoride ingestion from fluoride toothpaste in preschool children. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2007;31(2):176-84.
13. Bentley EM, Ellwood RP, Davies RM. Fluoride ingestion from toothpaste by young children. Br Dent J 1999;186(9):460-2.
14. Son JH, Park IS, Ma DS. The amount of toothpaste used by opening diameter size and squeezing methods in aged 3-4. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2008;32(2):243-9.
15. Chun JY, Lee HO, Kang YH. The amount of dentifrice used by opening diameter size and current status of commercial dentifrices for children in Korea. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2010; 10(3):541-53.
16. Son JH, Park IS, Ma DS. The amount of toothpaste used by opening diameter size and squeezing methods in aged 3-4. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2008;32(2):243-9.
17. Son JH, Park IS, Ma DS. A study on the relationship between the amount of toothpaste used for children by daycare teachers and the methods of squeezing toothpaste. KSSH 2009;22(1):67-72.
18. Lee KH, Kang YH, Song GS. A study on the parent awareness for use of dentifrice and tooth-brush among preschoolers. J Den Hyg Sci 2009;9(4):435-41.
19. Dincer E, Ligouri AL, Rayman S, Rivera A. Parental perceptions about children’s oral health care and toothpaste in New York city neighborhoods. N Y State Dent J 2009;44-8.
20. Kwon MJ, Son SE, Kang JK. The level of expertise and awareness of information on tooth-paste in dental hygienists. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2013;13(6):917-23. https://doi.org/10.13065/ jksdh.2013.13.06.917
21. Levy SM. Review of fluoride exposures and ingestion. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994; 22:173-80.
22. Ryu EJ. Dental health knowledge of pre-Schooler parents, behaviors and relations with their pre-schooler’s dental caries treatment[Master’s thesis]. Seoul: Univ. of Yensei, 2015.
23. Kim YH, Song KB, Lee SK. Association between oral health knowledge and behavior in mothers and dental health belief of their children. KSSH 2002;15(1):83-92.
24. Lee HS, Bae JY. A study on the dental plaque formation and the oral health condition of preschool children in Daegu city. J Den Hyg Sci 2007;13(1):71-8.
25. Shin SJ, Ahn YS, Jung SH. The relation between dental health behaviors and socioeconomic status among korean adolescents. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2008;32(2):223-30.
26. Kim YH. Effect of mothers’ oral health knowledge and behaviour on oral health status in their preschool children. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2005;5(1):15-27.
27. Kim JH, Lee MH, Kim HY. Influences of parental education level on oral health. J Korea Acad Industr Coop Soc 2015;16(2):1182-8. https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2015.16.2.1182
28. Song KH. A study on the school-aged children’s food habit and their oral health management practice. J Korean Acad Dent Hyg 2000;2(1):79-90.
29. Kim YH. Effect of mothers’ oral health knowledge and behaviour on oral health status in their preschool children. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2005;5(1):15-27.
30. Lee SN, Kim ES. A study on factors affecting the oral health care behavior of mothers for young children. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2012;12(6):1071-81.
31. Cho HR. Knowledge and attitudes towards infant oral health, and related health behavior among parents. Child Health Nurs Res 2014;20(3):196-204. https://doi.org/10.4094/chnr.2014.20.3.196
32. Lee KH, Choi CH, Hong SJ. Relationship of the use of some fluoride containing dentifrice on the korean market to children’s fluoride intake in different age groups. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2012;12(5):881-96.
33. Oh NR. Factors affection the oral health behavior and exposure assessment of fluorine in toothpaste[Doctoral dissertation]. Gyeongsan: Univ. of Daegu Catholic, 2014.
34. The Soap and Detergent Association. Exposure and risk screening methods for consumer product ingredients. Washington, DC: The Soap and Detergent Association; 2005:2-4-11.